Cabbage began to grow as a vegetable more than 4 thousand years ago in ancient Iberia, from where it came to ancient Egypt, and then to all corners of the world. Today, almost all gardeners love and grow this crop. Moreover, it has more than enough applications. But to get a rich, high-quality crop, you need good seedlings. How to grow cabbage seedlings at home, will be described in detail below in the article.
How to pick a cabbage variety?
The question of how to grow cabbage seedlings at home is very extensive. Not only the sowing or care technology, but also the choice of the variety to be grown.
That sort of - the first thing you need to decide before you buy seeds or land for planting. There are early, mid-season and late cabbage varieties.
It is the grade - the first thing you need to decide
- The early ones are small in size, the head is loose, but the sheets are juicy, crispy - perfect for salads and summer snacks.
- Mid-season varieties are used for first, second courses, fermentation.
- Late are recommended only if the cabbage needs to be stored for a long time. At first, after harvesting such cabbage, the sheets can be bitter. But after 1-2 months they acquire a natural, familiar and pleasant taste, become juicy.
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Since it is necessary to grow cabbage seedlings until a certain time, when it will need to be transplanted into open ground or a greenhouse, the period of sowing of seeds may differ significantly depending on the selected variety.
In any case, the sowing of seeds in seedlings from January is not necessary. This is too early. Even if the apartment is warm and it does not freeze out on the windowsill, by the time of transplantation into the open ground it will not be a seedling, but a full-fledged plant! At the same time, it is not recommended to make seedlings in May either - it is too late, she simply will not have time to develop.
From the time of sowing seeds to planting seedlings in open ground or greenhouse, an average of 60-65 days should pass
- Early cabbage varieties are sown on seedlings from late February or early March. In any case, until March 25, it should already grow!
- Mid-season varieties should be sown from March 25 to April 25.
- Late cabbage is always sown in April, from the first day to the 20th of the month.
If it is late, and to sow cabbage seedlings later than the specified dates, it may not have time to develop before it needs to be transplanted to a permanent place. Therefore, if the gardener will do a lot of different seedlings, all kinds of garden crops, it is worth making a reminder or noting the numbers on the calendar when planting a particular plant. After all, to grow a full-fledged cabbage seedlings in a short time is almost impossible even with an abundance of dressings.
Important! From the moment of sowing seeds to planting seedlings in open ground or greenhouse, an average of 60-65 days should pass.
Preparation of soil and seedling box
Gardeners, who know how to grow cabbage seedlings at home, are never limited to just a good container for the soil or a normal soil mix from the garden. They understand that seedlings need a good earth - nutritious, and poor capacity can lead to rotting of the roots or the development of various diseases.
You can grow cabbage seedlings in special low flower pots, wooden boxes, plastic containers. At the bottom, it is advisable to make a few holes so that the water can escape.
Cabbage seedlings can be grown in special low flower pots, wooden boxes, plastic containers
Important! In wooden boxes, holes are usually not made at the bottom, since the tree already passes moisture or it goes through the gaps between the boards at the bottom of the box.
It remains only to wash the seedling container with soap well or just pour around the potassium permanganate solution to disinfect it from the inside and you can start laying the soil, but first you need to prepare it.
The land, before growing the cabbage seedlings in it, must be cleared of larvae and disease spores, for this it is poured with boiling water or a weak solution of potassium permanganate. As far as the ground itself, you can buy soil for seedlings in the garden store or mix equal quantities of humus and turf, and add 1 tbsp for each kilogram of soil. spoon wood ash. All this is mixed and poured into a container for growing cabbage seedlings. The resulting land should be easy.
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Prior to the study of technology, how to grow seedlings of cabbage, you need to prepare the seeds. This is not a laborious, but important process, which allows them to be disinfected, saturated with useful substances, to improve germination.
- The first thing the seeds are sorted. It is necessary to remove all bad, damaged, to study what type they are. Some manufacturers process seeds before release and this is always indicated on the packaging. Such seed does not need additional disinfecting or feed. In other cases, the seeds should be processed.
Cabbage Seed Treatment Option
- Disinfection can be carried out with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. 4 g of potassium permanganate is taken per liter of warm water, it dissolves and mixes. Then seeds are immersed in the tank for 20 minutes.
- In order to saturate the seeds with useful substances, fertilizers containing cobalt, zinc, boron, magnesium, manganese, chromium, molybdenum, etc. are dissolved in warm water (40-50 degrees) and seeds are placed there for a day. After that they get and dry.
- The last stage of germination. This is a recommended item, but not mandatory, because many gardeners know how to grow cabbage seedlings without it. But they have a lot of experience, for those who did not grow cabbage before, it is worthwhile to soak the seeds so that shoots appear faster. 1-3 days before planting, put them in a wet cloth, wrap them in a plastic bag and put them in a warm place. 1-2 times a day, they are slightly opened for ventilation, and a rag is moistened if the water is dry. When sprouts appear, they can be sown in the ground.
Rows do at a distance of 5 cm from each other, depth - 1 cm
Now the main thing - how to grow cabbage seedlings at home? It's all pretty simple. The ground in the box is leveled, an even layer is made. The land is irrigated with water, not much, just to be wet. Then, a pencil or any other similar object draws straight lines (rows) for sowing. The rows are made at a distance of 5 cm from each other, the depth is 1 cm. Now the seeds are not very densely sown in these rows.
Important! After germination, sprouts are thinned, and thick crops always complicate the work. So it is best to sow as little as possible in order to simplify further care.
After sowing, crops sown with earth no more than 1 cm, slightly sprinkled with water from the sprayer, and determined in a dark place with a temperature of + 18 ... +20 degrees, until the emergence of shoots.
How to grow good cabbage seedlings?
If you know how to grow seedlings of cabbage, you can save a lot of money on its purchase and even earn extra money on its sale. The main points in the process of growing cabbage is not. Only in the complex attentive and precise actions can bring the desired results. One of the points for growing seedlings of cabbage is to care for it. This includes many sub-items, which are described in detail below.
- After the emergence of shoots, the film is removed, the box is moved to any sunny place, thinned, if necessary. Between individual seedlings in a row should be 2 cm of free space.
- After another 2 weeks, the sprouts swoop down into separate peat cups. It is worth taking peat glasses, as they allow you to replant the culture to a permanent place without damaging its root. Each sprout needs a glass of 5x5 cm or more. When picking, the burial goes up to the cotyledons.
- A light day for cabbage ideally should last 12-15 hours. This is too much for early spring, so you need a fluorescent lamp or the like. It is turned on in the evening, so that the shoots will be light for several hours after sunset.
Watering is carried out as needed when the soil dries.
- Watering is carried out as needed when the soil dries. You can not overdo it - the abundance or lack of moisture in the cultivation of cabbage seedlings is destructive!
- After each watering, the soil is loosened so that it will not be taken with a crust.
- The air temperature in the room where the sprouts are located should be + 15 ... +17 degrees during the day and + 8 ... +10 degrees at night. This will prevent the sprouts from pulling out. However, this is only provided that cabbage is grown. Broccoli, for example, does not tolerate changes in the microclimate.
- Top dressing is needed about 3 times during the growth period of cabbage in pots. The first is needed 7 days after the picks. 2 g of potassium salt, 2 g of ammonium nitrate, 4 g of superphosphate are taken per liter of warm water. The mixture is enough for 50 plants. After 14 days, the second dressing is done with the same substances, only the amount of substances in 1 liter should be doubled. The third feeding is needed 3-4 days before planting seedlings in a permanent place. 3 g of ammonium nitrate, 5 g of superphosphate and 8 g of potassium salt are taken per liter of water.
Prevention against pests and diseases
With the technology of planting and care is understandable, but how to grow cabbage seedlings at home, not damaged by diseases and pests?
Prevention involves treating seeds, soil and a box with potassium permanganate, as well as irrigating with warm, clean water. But diseases and pests can be taken, it would seem, from nowhere. And then what to do?
Prevention involves treating seeds, soil and a crate with potassium permanganate.
- For root rot, use Trichodermin or Rizoplan. The developers of these tools claim that they are biological, safe, and yet you should use them only for the intended purpose, and only according to the instructions, so as not to burn thin, susceptible sprouts.
- If a black leg is damaged, it is necessary to dry the ground in containers with a plant (do not water it for a certain time) and pull seedlings with wood ash.
- From cruciferous flea used "Inta-Vir" - a relatively safe substance and very effective, according to reviews of gardeners.
How to harden cabbage seedlings?
How to grow cabbage seedlings strong and healthy? You need to harden it! 10-14 days before planting the seedlings to a permanent place, it is necessary to start hardening. At night, the window does not close, and in the day-time the seedlings are carried out to the balcony, loggia or street (in the private sector) and air. Fresh air, wind, lower temperatures allow cabbage to acclimatize more quickly and get used to a more aggressive environment.
In this case, the time of "walking" seedlings need to be increased gradually. First, it is carried out for 30 minutes, then for an hour, two, three, and so on. If the cabbage is immediately transplanted to a permanent place, and even into the open ground, and not into the greenhouse, it can take a long time to get used to new conditions and develop slowly.