Schwyz breed of cows refers to the meat and milk direction. Bred in the canton of Schwyz (Switzerland). It has high productive indicators, is not picky in terms of maintenance, it is recommended even for breeders without experience with cattle. The article will describe in detail the qualitative characteristics of the Swiss breed, its advantages and disadvantages.
How did the breed appear?
The Schwyz breed of cows is also called in some countries of the Alpine or Swiss brown, it was bred in Switzerland in the XIV century. Her ancestors were bulls and cows that have lived in Switzerland for centuries.
In the initial period of breeding work, it was important for breeders that the cow and bullhead could, if necessary, perform a number of agricultural work. That is, she needed not only a meat and dairy cow, but also a working one. But over time, due to the rapid development of technology and engineering, the need for working qualities of the breed has disappeared, and breeders have focused on milk production and meat features.
Schwyz breed of cows came to Russia and Ukraine approximately in the second half of the XIX century
Selection was carried out with strict selection. They left only those animals that could live without problems in the conditions of this area (the climate of Switzerland), and were also not demanding in the diet.
Schwyz breed of cows came to Russia and Ukraine approximately in the second half of the XIX century. Its genetic material allowed the creation of the Brown Carpathian, Lebedin, Caucasian, Kostroma and Alatau breeds of cows. Today, representatives of this species can be found in South and North America, Germany, Switzerland, France, Italy, Austria, Ukraine, Russia and some other countries in Asia and Europe.
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Build average friability. The Schwyz breed of cows has strong bones. The body is elongated (up to 170 cm), massive, musculature is not very well developed, but not weakly. Height at withers - 135-155 cm. The back, chest and croup are wide. The legs are even, of medium length, the hooves are strong, adapted for walking through narrow gorges, marshlands, and rocky mountain paths. The neck is short and wide. The head is average in size, proportional to the body. There are skin folds on the neck.
Exterior of the Schwyz breed of cows
Udder cows rounded, toned, not much sagging. The udder index is 41-44%. Veins are well defined. Males have medium length, dark horns.
Important! Schwyz breed of cows in Germany and Austria has more modest size, but in France and Italy - large. This is due to the fact that over many years the breed has been adjusted by breeders from different countries in one direction or another.
The skin is elastic, shiny. The coat is thick and short. The suit is brown (dark or light), there is a light band on the back, as well as light circles around the eyes and nose. Moreover, males are always darker than females.
What are the productive qualities of the breed?
The Schwyz breed of cows has a meat and dairy direction, therefore, it is produced in abundance of meat and milk.
- The weight of cows is 550-600 kg, bulls - 900-1000 kg. Slaughter meat yield - 56-59%. The meat is of excellent quality, tasty, not very fat, juicy.
The weight of cows is 550-600 kg, the bulls - 900-1000 kg
- Calves from birth weigh up to 40 kg, early, grow quickly, the daily weight gain reaches 1 kg with good feeding.
- For the year, about 4000-4500 kg of milk, with a fat content of 3.7-3.8% are fed from the cows. Protein in the composition of about 3.2-3.6%.
Interesting! Milk of Swiss breed of cows in Italy and France for the most part is directed to the production of all kinds of delicious cheeses.
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Schwyz breed of cows is widely spread in America, Europe and Asia. She easily acclimatizes, gets used to local conditions, changes habits, that is why breeders love her so much. But what other positive qualities does the breed have?
- High dairy and meat indicators.
- Precocity - calves quickly gaining weight.
- The animal is easily acclimatized.
- Good immune system. Both calves and adults are rarely ill, and with quality care, the chance of the appearance and spread of diseases is minimized.
Calves quickly gaining weight
- There are usually no problems with lambing. They occur only with rare complications, if the cow is sick, had any mechanical damage or something like that. The female gives birth by herself, without assistance.
- The temper of the Swiss breed cows is calm. They are not shy, behave approximately and in the pen and on the walking. Allow themselves to milk, help, care for themselves, they can even let a calf to a newborn.
- Breed is irreplaceable for farms far from pastures, as it can overcome considerable distances.
- It has excellent genetic material, so it is used for breeding in different countries of the world.
What are the disadvantages of the Schwyz breed?
Along with the merits, breeders note certain problems in the Swiss breed of cows, which breeders are still struggling with.
Need a good pasture with plenty of healthy grasses
- In feeding finicky. They need a good pasture (with an abundance of healthy grasses), high-quality animal feed. Poor feeding always affects the health of the animal and the quality of milk.
- An udder may be incorrectly constructed, as a result of which machine milking becomes impossible. So when buying individuals you need to be extremely careful and critically examine the udder of the animal.
- The intensity of the return of milk is low, only 1.1-1.3 kg / min.